Seventeenth Century








Court Records








General Web Resources

Search Engline for Shakespeare's Stage

Coney-catching - Elizabethan Underworld resource

Crime and Punishment in Elizabethan England at Eyewitness History

Law in popular Culture at the University of Texas

Gillian Spraggs's Outlaws & Highwaymen website

Robin Hood of Loxley

Robin Hood at



Terms Defined

Executioner's Glossary at Loyola University

Elizabethan Insults

Medieval Legal Terms defined

Medieval Terms defined at the Orb


Web Bibliographies

Early Modern Web Crime Bibliography

Outlaws Bibliography

Gillian Spraggs's Rogue Literature Bibliography

City Life Bibliography


Online texts

Salem Witchcraft Papers at the University of Virginia

Sixteenth Century Ballads

Complete Newgate Calendar at the University of Texas

Rochester Robin Hood Project

Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads

TEAMS Middle English Texts including 'The Tale of Gamelyn' and 'A Gest of Robyn Hode'

The Proceedings of the Old Bailey London 1674 to 1834, searchable

The Newgate Calendar, indexed

Tyburn Tree: Public Execution in Early Modern England

Project Gutenberg Electronic Public Library



Author Biographies

Elizabethan Drama - playwright biographies

Bartelby on Robert Greene



Essay on Renaissance Tragedy and Investigator Heroes

The Highwaymen Ghosts, Article by Martin and Louise Jeffrey


Book Reviews and Book Purchase Details

Review of Rogues, Vagabonds, and Sturdy Beggars: A New Gallery of Tudor and Early Stuart Rogue Literature, edited by Arthur F. Kinney, by John Mucci at Book Reviews

Jest Books, the Literature of Roguery, and the Vagrant Poor in Renaissance England by L. Woodbridge

Criminal Justice and Crime in Late Renaissance Florence, 1537–1609 by John K. Brackett

Marvels, Monsters, and Miracles: Studies in the Medieval and Early Modern Imaginations edited by Timothy S. Jones and David A. Sprunger

Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English edited by Thomas H. Ohlgren

An Economy of Violence in Early Modern France Crime and Justice in the Haute Auvergne, 1587-1664 by Malcolm Ross Greenshields


The Following Indispensible Links and Bibliography are provided by Early Modern Web

E-mail: Early Modern Resources

Crime Law and Disorder Links

Proceedings of the Old Bailey A major project headed by Tim Hitchcock and Robert Shoemaker, which has produced a 'fully searchable online edition of the largest body of texts detailing the lives of non-elite people ever published, containing accounts of over 100,000 criminal trials held at London's central criminal court' (1674-1834 ultimately; covers 1714-99 at the time of writing). Apart from the amazing database itself (you can view both transcripts and digital versions of the originals), there is a valuable historical background section with well-written articles on a range of topics: policing; types of offence; London; different communities; gender; the Old Bailey; a section on the publishing history of the Proceedings; and a fine bibliography. A magnificent achievement

Early Modern Crime, Law and Order: a bibliography (at this site) a broad-ranging themed bibliography of published (English-language only) secondary sources

Online primary sources for crime in early modern England and Wales (at this site)

Glossary of useful terms (England and Wales) (at this site)

Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe (Susan Dinan) taught course syllabus (not taught since 2000; basic information and reading currently [December '04] all that's available)

Tyburn Tree excellent resource on execution in early modern England, including a range of useful links, primary documents and images and a bibliography

The Complete Newgate Calendar (University of Texas, Law in Popular Culture collection) complete text of the 1926 edition of this amazing eighteenth-century source (for the development of crime fiction as much as for studying crime itself). Try also Newgate Calendar Stories (Dennis Denisoff)

London's disreputable south bank in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Jessica Browner) examining Southwark's notorious reputation during the early modern period, a shady world of petty crime, alehouses and prostitution

  Crime and the Law in Elizabethan England (Internet Shakespeare Editions) includes sections on the Elizabethan underworld, attitudes to crime, punishment

Female Crime in Renaissance Drama (Matthew Clothier and Leah Edwards) a student project which considers media representations of murderous women, focusing on the play Arden of Faversham (unavailable: December '04)

  The duello in Elizabethan England (Maelgwyn Dda) a lively look at the culture of the duel in early modern England

Dartford assizes in the sixteenth century (Dartford Archive) an abstract of criminal cases from Dartford tried at the Assize courts: gives a flavour of the types of offence tried at these important English courts

The Court Structure of Quebec and Lower Canada, 1764-1860 (Donald Fyson) a basic guide to the courts: 'the intention is that researchers knowing only the name of the court whose documents they are consulting can easily determine its position in the judicial hierarchy, its predecessors and successors, and its general competence'

Famous American Trials: Salem Witchcraft Trials (Douglas Linder) as with the next two links, the author selects from a range of materials (and the amount of online material for the Salem trials is huge) relating to famous trials to produce a useful resource

Famous American Trials: John Peter Zenger Trial (Douglas Linder) the 1735 trial of a Boston printer that is regarded as a landmark in the development of a free press

Famous American Trials: Boston Massacre Trial (Douglas Linder) in 1770 a group of British soldiers in Boston fired on a crowd that was pelting them with various objects, killing five of the civilians. Two soldiers were later convicted of manslaughter, and several more acquitted

Lost Women (Mary Elizabeth Perry) extracted from the book Crime and Society in early modern Seville , looks at the women of the Seville 'underworld' and the city authorities' attempts to deal with them as a perceived threat to order

Crime, litigation and the courts in the Isle of Man (Stephen Miller) ( htm version )   outline of a research project using a rich but neglected set of archives, from a range of courts in the early modern Isle of Man

Wales and the Law (at this site) original sources (printed and archival) on crime and justice in Wales, c.1500-1800. Very small at the moment, but hopefully will expand over the coming months

Clothing, cloth and cloth-theft in Defoe's England (Melissa Johnson) essay looking at clothing, the second-hand clothes trade and theft in the early eighteenth century

Crime and punishment in early modern Germany (Robert Selig)

Violence in early modern Europe (Julius Ruff) extensive bibliographical essay (a longer version of material contained in Ruff's book on violence in early modern Europe): sections on representations of crime; states, arms and armies; justice; interpersonal violence; ritual group violence; violent popular protest; organised crime

Pirates and their Enemies (C R Pennell) materials for a taught course: includes primary documents, bibliography, web links

Outlaws and Highwaymen (Gillian Spraggs) as well as a varied range of texts (including ballads, newspaper reports, fictional stories, memoirs), includes an outline history, bibliography and links

Capital punishment in the Isle of Man (Peter Edge)

Torture in early modern Spain and Latin America (Tamar Herzog) outlining the context, doctrine and practice of early modern legal torture

Making Sense of English Law Enforcement in the 18th Century (David Friedman) essay examining the eighteenth-century English criminal justice system

Last Mile Tours: Capital Punishment in Eighteenth-century England (Margaret Allen, Mandy Taylor, Bonnie Bonifield) a student project making imaginative use of original sources

Forced Labour, Workhouse-prisons and the Early Modern State (Thomas Munck, IHR seminar) examining early developments in institutionalised poor relief, through a case study of Danish workhouses and forced labour schemes

Honour, Reputation and Defamation (at this site) a short bibliography of printed materials relating to defamation and slander, honour and insult

Early Modern Resources : Investigating Crime in Early Modern Society

Teaching Resources: Online Primary Sources

Crime and the Law in England and Wales, c.1500-1800

NB: Citing Online Sources

  Take care to note any particular citation requirements for pages at websites; eg Citation guide at the Old Bailey Proceedings website .

General guidance: Citing electronic documents


Court Documents and Related Records

Old Bailey Proceedings (printed reports of criminal trials at the Old Bailey 1674-1834, plus some associated archival records for the 18th century; transcripts and document images, keyword searchable, statistics facilities)

Virtual Norfolk (transcripts/extracts)

     ·        Crime and the law

     ·        Gender, sexuality

     ·        Witchcraft and magic

     ·        Popular religion

     ·        The case of John Kettle

     ·        Riot and rebellion

     ·        Kett's rebellion 1549

     ·        18th-century poverty and riot

     ·        Dissent and sedition after the Restoration

     ·        'Glorious Revolution' and seditious words

     ·        Prosecutions of Quakers

     ·        18th-century election disputes

Crime and punishment in 18th-century mid- Wales (document images and transcripts)

     ·        The pillory

     ·        Public whippings

     ·        Treatment of women

     ·        Prison conditions

     ·        Death sentences

     ·        Selling ale without a licence

     ·        Transportation

     ·        Bastardy

     ·        Profanity

     ·        Escapes from prison

Gathering the Jewels (Wales): Crime (document images and transcripts/translations/extracts)

     ·        Assault cases

     ·        Theft cases

     ·        Assorted court records

     ·        Juries

     ·        Caernarfonshire Quarter Sessions

     ·        Recognizance, innkeeper, Caernarfonshire

     ·        A Caernarfonshire beggar, 1795

     ·        Trial for forgery, Wales, 1818

     ·        Jury service and an execution, Beaumaris

     ·        Corn riots and magistrates, Anglesey

Wales and the Law (transcripts; a few document images)

Witchcraft in Flintshire (document images only)

Petition against an illegal alehouse, Gloucestershire

JPs' list of alehouses in Derbyshire 1577


Crime in Print and Popular Culture

Complete Newgate Calendar

Jonathan Wild

Jack Sheppard

Fielding's life of Jonathan Wild

Autobiography of a smuggler

Early eighteenth-century newspaper reports

The word on the street: Scottish broadsides

The Beggars Opera


Bodleian broadside ballads

16th-century ballads (also here )

A caveat for cutpurses

The Berkshire tragedy

Tom Clinch going to be hanged



Law and Order, Ideals and Ideologies

Extracts from Dalton, The Countrey Justice

Blackstone's Commentaries

Beccaria Of crimes and punishments

Adam Smith, Lectures on jurisprudence

Elizabeth Homily on obedience

Homily against disobedience and rebellion

From the 'Book of Sports' (1633)

The Act against Puritans 1593

The Act against Recusants 1593

Act against Jesuits 1585

Elizabethan proclamation against maintenance of pirates

Habeas Corpus Act 1679

Calendar of State Papers Domestic 1603-10

Tyburn Tree: 'Dying Speeches'



Particular Topics

Outlaws and Highwaymen

Homosexuality in eighteenth-century England

Pirate image archive (also includes documents)

Pirate documents

Hanover Texts: Witchcraft documents


Religion and politics

The Pilgrimage of Grace

Dissent, doubt and spiritual violence in the Reformation

Trial of the Gunpowder plotters

Killing the King: Trial of Charles I

Trial of royalist plotters against Cromwell


Tyburn Tree: Various documents

Boswell at Tygate and Newburn

Tudor England : Executions

     ·        Executions of Fisher, More et al 1535

     ·        Anne Boleyn, last words / execution (1536)

     ·        Execution of Duke of Somerset 1552

     ·        Executions of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley 1554

     ·        Execution of Thomas Cranmer 1556

     ·        Execution of Mary Stewart 1587


Convicts and the Colonies


The Hogarth Archive









English history and literature

Early Modern England Source

Early modern English history: includes pages of links to research resources (including bibliographies) and web sites .

  Sharon Howard's History Resources

A valuable set of pages with links to sites on Crime, punishment and law (contemporary and historical perspectives) and Early Modern History (with a special section on Crime, law and disorder ), also a page of links to Early Modern Bibliographies .

  Early Modern Literary Studies. WWW-Accessible Resources

  Links to resource materials useful to literary scholars working in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

  The Humbul Humanities Hub

The UK higher and further education gateway to online humanities resources.

  History On-Line

Gateway site maintained by the Institute for Historical Research (UK).


Medieval, Renaissance and seventeenth-century literature and its background.

  Voice of the Shuttle

A venerable (in Web terms) gateway site to resources in the humanities; currently undergoing a major overhaul and upgrading.

  Here are some guides to the web that are more comprehensive in scope:

BBC Webguide

'Best of the Web'; has history, arts and education directories.

  BUBL LINK / 5:15

Selected Internet resources covering all academic subject areas. Here is the Humanities page.

  Librarians' Index to the Internet

Large directory of resources on all subjects selected by American librarians. Here is the History page.

  The Internet Public Library

This site includes an extensive directory of web resources. Here is the Arts & Humanities page.

  The WWW Virtual Library

The oldest catalogue of the web, started by Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of html and the web itself. Run by a loose confederation of volunteers, who compile pages of key links for particular areas in which they are expert. Here are the British History , English History and Early Modern History pages.



More Pirates

Buccaneers of Old - Pirate Links

Piracy in general

            Pirates of   the Caribbean - (no connection with the movie) good, concise material, nice graphics   - updated 10/17/04

            Pirates Cove   - graphic rich, but extensive site - updated   10/17/04

            Pyrates Providence -   "a starting point for those inclined to go on the account" - updated   10/17/04

            Gentlemen of Fortune - Living History 1690-1725 Golden Age of Piracy - updated   10/17/04

            Swashbuckler's Cove   - extensive site, lots of material not found elsewhere - updated   1/31/05

            Pirates & Privateers   - Cindy Vallar's monthly articles on piracy & privateering - updated   1/1/04

            Welcome to Pirates! -   extensive site, good teacher resource section

            The Pirate's Library -   source of many standard pirate reference books - updated   1/8/05

            The   Pirate's Life - pirates, ships, flags & more -- great graphics,   images of artifacts

            Captain Morgan's   Journal - many links & good bibliography on early pirates & vikings

            The   Captain's Cabin - mix of pirate facts, poems, art & tales - new   6/22/04

            Le Diable Volant - in   English & French, 17th c. Caribbean pirates, many original documents

            Piece of Eight:   A Guide to 17th-Century Piracy 

              Isle of   Tortuga - In Dutch and English, with many primary documents

            Defiant Women:   Pirates  

            Booty:  Girl Pirates on the   High Seas - book about lots of female pirates 

            Women Pirates & Privateers: Real and Legendary   - extensive list 

            Pirates Of The Caribbean   - Virgin Islands pirate history

            The History of the Spanish Treasure Fleet System     - new 1/8/05

            Pirates of the Spanish Main - lots of links,   classic graphics

            Index of Piracy   - list of pirate links

            Pirate Mythtory   - correcting many of our misconceptions about pirates  - new   1/8/05

            LEGENDS - Pirates & Privateers - mostly   links and references

            Pirates and Privateers - by   Cindy Vallar - Suite 101 archived articles

            Welcome to Pirate's Cove -   good resources, seafaring info, underwater archeology

              Pirates Homepage - The students   of Rochedale State School contribute to this site

            The Pirate's Hold -   pirate roster, timeline, list of computer & RPG games - updated   3/13/04

            Pirates - by Ryan   Elwell (good Quotes page)

            Capt. Blood's Family - historical   information about the Brethren of the Coast

            "Scurvy Dogs"   - an historical view of the Golden Age of Piracy 

            The   Mysterious & Unexplained - Oak Island

            Oak Island Treasure -   excellent British site about the mystery 

            Lost Treasure of the Knights   Templar ::  Solving the Oak Island Mystery 

            Piracy in Newfoundland    

            Pirates of the Whydah - National   Geographic 

            Expedition Whydah - The Legend of Capt. Bellamy

            Pirate   Ghosts:  Whydah -- Current Expedition

            Treasure Pirates of the Whydah   - Barry Clifford's hunt for sunken treasure ships

              Beej's Pirate Image Archive   -- great resource of images in public domain

            Pirates Of The Bahamas

            Port Royal - The   famous Pirate City, much of it sunk by an earthquake

            Port Royal Project - Texas   A&M - Institute of Underwater Archeology 

            The History of St.   Augustine - attacked by Drake and other pirates

            Pirate Law:   WEAPONS - written by Anne Read

            I Sailed with Chinese   Pirates - true account 

            Punks 'n Pirates - history   (Baltic pirates), songs (some in Swedish), humor 

            A Pirates   Progress:  How the Maritime Rogue Became a Multicultural Hero

            Blackbeard's   Bottle - What did the Pirates drink?

            PsychoWench's Jolly Roger Page -   learn meaning of symbols on pirate flags (click on Moto-Munkey Patches, then   scroll down to the link at Jolie Rogue in the list)  - new   2/5/05

            Pirates on Stamps -   images of stamps with the piracy theme 

            The Fate of Theodosia Burr   - was she attacked by pirates? 

            The Portrait of Theodosia Burr   - more of the story.  

Privateering and Letters of Marque

(of course, many of the sites above deal with privateers - these are sites that specially focus on privateers)

            Privateering Homepage -   Canadian privateering, letters of marque, Barrett's Privateers

              Letters   of Marque - many letters of marque in several languages

              Treaties   with the Barbary Powers - actual documents 

Individual Pirates

(grouped roughly in alphabetical order by the name of the pirate or his/her nickname)

            Blackbeard Lives - The contest is over,   but it's still a great site.

            In   Search of Blackbeard , article from Historic Traveller

            Queen Anne's   Revenge - investigating the remains of Blackbeard's flagship -  new   1/2/05

            Blackbeard's Homepage ........the King of   Pirates

              Blackbeard's Ship   Believed Discovered

            The Story of Blackbeard - from   Teach's Hole - Blackbeard Exhibit & Pirate Specialty Shop

            Home of Blackbeard the   Pirate - Blackbeard sites in coastal N. Carolina -  new   1/2/05

            Blackbeard   Rises Again - Discovery Online's Queen Anne's Revenge updates

            Surface Interval Diving Company - Lookin'   for Blackbeard's final prize, the Martinique sugar ship

            Anne Bonney Home Page   -historical information written by her namesake

            Anne Bonny and Mary Read    

              Defiant   Women: Anne Bonny  

            Bouchard's attack on San   Juan Capistrano   

              William Dampier -   buccaneer, world explorer, and naturalist

              Captain John Deane -   Adventurer and pirate

            Sir Francis Drake, the Buccaneer

            Sir Francis Drake

            Legends: Sir Francis Drake

            Robert Drury's Journal   - a pirate's adventures in Madagascar

            Fieldwork   in Madagascar - the shipwreck of the Degrave , which stranded   Robert Drury 

            Peter Easton, the Marquis   of Savoy - one of the most infamous pirates of the 17th c

            Peter   Easton - Pirate Admiral  

            Peter   Easton "The Pirate Admiral" -  his activities in   Newfoundland -  new 1/2/05

            Granuaile - Irish   chieftain and pirate, aka "Grace O'Malley"

            Defiant   Women: Granuaile  

            Gráinne Ní Mháille ~ Pirate   Queen of Connaught

            Granuaile   O'Malley  

            Grace O'Malley - by Judy Staley 

              Grainne   Ni Mhaille - based on "Uppity Women of Medieval Times"

              Granuaile   - Daughter of Owen The O'Malley

              Piet Heyn   - famous Dutch privateer

              John Paul Jones Page

            John Paul Jones - Pirate or Patriot

            Famous Pirates - Kidd, Lafitte, Rackham 

            Captain Kidd

            The Pirate   Hunter - based on book about Kidd, see real documents, & Kidd's home 

              Diving   for Captain Kidd's Sunken Ship - a Discovery adventure 

              Captain Kidd's Island Found - a   good bio & possible location for Kidd's treasure

              Thomas Lacy   and the Pirate - a page from the Lacy family history

              The Laffite Society   -  organization devoted to the study of the privateers Jean & Pierre Laffite 

              Jean   Lafitte - Gentleman Pirate - online book 

              Olivier Le Vasseur   - (in French) aka La Buse (the Buzzard) -  new   1/2/05

            Old   Hickory and the Pirate - Jean Lafitte

            Great Characters of New   Orleans - Jean Lafitte

            Henry Morgan, Pirate Ship   - May be the one found off of Haiti

              Henry Morgan - A Welsh Buccaneer

            A Morgan Family   Reunion - history of the Morgan family, including Henry Morgan

            Jean David Nau -   (in French) aka François L'Olonnais, very detailed with maps  -  new   1/2/05

            John   Nutt , Newfoundland Pirate

              Gilbert Pike and Sheila   Na Geira - Gilbert & Sheila Pike

                          Princess Sheila NaGira -   a romantic story of a pirate and a princess, more on the Pikes

**Special Note: Teachers in search of learning activities dealing with navigation in the Seventeenth Century should check out the web site Piece of Eight under History .

The Golden Hind

Educational worksheets on Sir Francis Drake, the ship's voyage around the world, health & life at sea, mariners' food, sea battles, war with Spain, punishment, ships pay, and navigation.

The Legend of Captain Dave's Lost Treasure

Designed as a summer reading adventure by the Dauphin County Library System, this scavenger hunt takes pirate fans to various web sites to decipher the secret riddle that will allow them to join Captain Dave's crew. Pirate trivia and history are interspersed among the clues. Don't forget to print the map before you begin your adventure!

A Pirate's Journey

This eye-pleasing site explores the world of piracy. Topics include the Jolly Roger, Blackbeard and the Queen Anne's Revenge , pirate articles and punishments, famous pirates, and a who's who aboard a pirate ship. The table that explains the meanings of the symbols found on pirate flags is unique among web sites.


This Australian school project provides a wonderful treasure trove of information and photographs on pirates.  It includes piracy terms, famous pirates, a Treasure Island summary, pirate stories and poems, and a quiz to test your knowledge about pirates.

Privateers: Pirates or Patriots?

This elementary Maryland Social Studies unit explores the effect of piracy on the economy of early America and compares pirates to privateers. There are links to other web sites, a student worksheet, and The Trial of Chesapeake Charlie , a script of a pirate trial.

Seeking Pirate Treasure

This New York Times article on the discovery of Captain Kidd's Adventure Galley off the coast of Madagascar includes a two-day lesson plan geared for students in Grades 6-12 on historical archaeology.

A Teaching Unit for Treasure Island

Created by Joan Bigelow for her middle school students, this site provides her course notes and schedule, activities, teacher synopsis, and research project ideas on pirates.


Beer Bard's Privateers

This small band of SCA privateers focuses on a sailor's life pre-1600's, but includes naval history through the mid-1700's.  Of particular note is their concentration on the Barbary Corsairs.

The Canadian Privateering Homepage

Dan Conlin, a marine historian in Halifax, has compiled an extensive array of information about Canadian privateers. There are lists of privateers as well as the ships on which they sailed. Travel aboard a privateer as she sails the West Indies in search of prey!

  Captain Raven's Seadogs of the Eighteenth Century

Explores the Golden Age of Piracy.  Topics include common misconceptions, discipline, the Jolly Roger, women pirates, and POTC fanfiction.

Isle of Tortuga

This site provides an overview of piracy with particular emphasis on English and Dutch pirates and the notorious pirate haven of Tortuga. Also contains Exquemelin's The Buccaneers of America.

Jolly Roger Pirate Journal

"Redbeard" Bob's site delves into pirate history, the Jolly Roger and the Knight Templar, women pirates, pirate ships and their captains, several famous pirates, and pirate movies.  Don't forget to take his Official Pirate Qualification Exam 101.

Museum of Unnatural History

These pages provide a general history on piracy and biographies on several of the more well-known pirates: Morgan, Blackbeard, Kidd, Roberts, and Rackham. Information on the mysterious Oak Island is also included. The Home button will take you to the museum's main page from which you can seek further adventures involving UFOs, lost worlds, dinosaurs, and much more.

Piece of Eight: a Guide to 17th-century Piracy

This site deals only with piracy in the Western world during the 1600s.  Topics covered include navigation, seamanship, life at sea, politics, weapons, and people.  There is also a forum for discussion and the navigation pages include lesson plans written by a teacher to help students learn about the various tools sailors used to travel the High Seas.  Eventually there will be a pirate database.

Pirate Walks in Bristol, England

Pirate Pete conducts guided tours of Bristol, England's pirate and maritime haunts.  The historical nuggets within these pages include maps, historical tidbits, and famous pirates and mariners of yore.

The Pirate's Life - Dead Men Tell No Tales

Summaries of famous pirates and privateers of the 17th and 18th centuries, pirate flags, and pirate ships and their captains. Clickable color graphics allow for full images of ships, flags, and Captain Kidd's privattering letter of marque.

The Pirate's Realm

This well-rounded look at piracy includes biographies of famous pirates, articles of agreement, pirate ships, havens, weaponry, vocabulary, crew members, and more.

Pirates! Fact and Legend

Great site on the history of pirates and their lifestyle. Interesting diagrams on how much compensation a pirate received for the loss of a limb and the parts of a ship. Learn pirate lingo, too.


Pirates of the Bahamas

These pages provide a general history on piracy and biographies on several of the more well-known pirates: Morgan, Blackbeard, Kidd, Roberts, and Rackham. Information on the mysterious Oak Island is also included. The Home button will take you to the museum's main page from which you can seek further adventures involving UFOs, lost worlds, dinosaurs, and much more.

Pirates of the Caribbean

A wealth of information on pirates, including a detailed look at their weaponry, ships, and haunts. Detailed explanations on punishments, especially keel hauling.

P.U.B.C.A.T. (Political Union of Buccaneers, Corsairs, and Associated Trades)

This re-enactors group, based in the UK, includes an Encyclopaedia Piratica at its web site.  They specialize in piracy during the 1660s and 1670s.  There's an extensive dictionary that covers general terms, as well as those pertaining to ships, slang, people, places, weaponry, and money.  Of special note is their description of period clothing for those interested in the Age of Buccaneers.

Pyrate's Providence

Pictures of notorious pirates, but no biographies. Good explanation of pirate ships and flags. For those who "intend to go on account," check out the pirate glossary.

Ye Olde Booke O' Seadogs

An in-depth look at maritime life during the Renaissance and the Sea Dogs who waged war against Spain on Queen Elizabeth's behalf. Within these pages you'll find information on the sailor's life, clothing, types of ships, equipment, biographies, and more.

Notorious Pirates

Beej's Pirate Image Archive

This collection of pictures includes images of notorious pirates, battles on sea and land, punishments for pirates, pirates having fun, and documents and maps.

Captain William Kidd: His Life and Times

A well-organized look at William Kidd's life from his birth to his execution for piracy. Accompanied by good illustrations. Easy to read. Additional pages discuss Kidd's treasure and Paul Hawkins' attempt to locate it.

Defiant Women: Pirates

What did Anne Bonny, Mary Read, Grace O'Malley, Ms. Ching Shih, and Charlotte de Berry have in common? They were female pirates. Great color graphics for Grace O'Malley.

Elizabeth's Pirates

Without the aid of Elizabeth I's Sea Dogs, England might never have gained mastery over Spain or the sea.  This site examines these pirates and their role in defeating the Spanish Armada.

Franco's Cybertemple: the Life and Times of Sir Henry Morgan

Whether pirate or privateer, Henry Morgan was one of the most successful buccaneers. This page provides a detailed biography of this legendary figure.

Pirate's Cove

Rogues gallery of pirates, privateers, and explorers. A 15th-century sailing glossary. Renaissance trade routes. Restored and reconstructed wooden ships. Nautical archeological resources and web sites.

V'lé's Pirate Cove

A collection of biographies on some of the most infamous pirates in history. Some of the lesser known pirates included here are John Oxenham, Conajee Angria, and Abraham Blauvelt. Other information included at the cove is a general history of pirates, pirate ships and their captains, shipboard duties, and nautical terms.

Women Pirates & Privateers Real and Legendary

Compiled by author/historian John Richard Stephens, author Joan Druett, Christine Lampe - editor of No Quarter Given , and Ken Kinkor, Acting Director of Expedition Whydah, this is a comprehensive list of women pirates and a few privateers.

Women Pirates in History

Chapters from an online book detailing the lives of Anne Bonny and Mary Read, Cheng I Sao, and Grace O'Malley.

Return to Top

Pirate Literature

Dead Men Tell No Tales (formerly The Pirate's Library)

Searching for great books on pirates? Fern Canyon Press goes beyond a mere list of in-print and hard-to-find titles for adults and children. They provide a detailed summary of over seventy books and post their tables of content. You'll also find complete online texts with graphics of pirate classics, including Treasure Island , Robinson Crusoe , and Sandokan .

I Sailed with Chinese Pirates by Aleko E. Lilius

A journalist's first-hand account, originally published in 1930, of sailing with Chinese pirates led by a female captain. The authors of Terry and the Pirates fashioned their character, The Dragon Lady, after Lai Choi San, the female pirate in this account.

Lisa Jensen's Pirate Film Reviews

"From Captain Blood to Captain Hook to Captain Ron, from Long John Silver to Yellowbeard, I let you know which ones you can't afford to miss and alert you to possible disappointments," Lisa says. She also includes a section on upcoming movies as well. A professional film critic for twenty-seven years, Lisa combines her expertise with her passion - movies of maritime piracy.

Piratical and Privateering Books in English

Compiled by Larry Voyer, this is an extensive list of books about pirates. There are separate sections on pirates in children's books and in fiction. Larry welcomes additional titles for inclusion. The only drawback of this site is that the graphics make it exceedingly slow to load.

Reefs, Wrecks, & Rascals: the Pirate Legacy of the Spanish Main

Virtual exhibit of early books and manuscripts from the Jay I. Kislak Foundation.  Among the items are a 1600 map of Sir Francis Drake's attack on Santo Domingo, James I's proclamation to hunt pirates, a 1684 copy of Alexandre Exquemelin's Buccaneers of America, a 1680 document describing Sir Henry Morgan's raid on Porto Bello, and early publications written by buccaneers and privateers.




Ancient Greek and Roman times

Early Middle Ages - 1200-1450

Elizabethan Era - 1450-1750

Industrial times - 1750-1900


  Print resources

Braithwaite, John. Crime, shame and reintegration . 364.601 BRA

Culpin, Christopher.   Crime and punishment through time . 364.9 CUL

Healey, Kaye.   Crime & punishment. 364.994 CRI

Lyons, Lewis.   The history of punishment . 364.67 LYO

Rothman, David J. The Oxford history of the prison : the practice of punishment in Western society . 365.9 OXF

Scott, George Riley. A history of torture. 364.67 SCO

Wilson, Paul R. Issues in crime, morality and justice . 364.994 ISS



  General encyclopaedic article looking at the meaning of punishment

Learn History: Crime punishment and protest thorough time c1450-2004

  Ideas about crime, and approaches to law enforcement and punishment in: Ancient Rome; Anglo-Saxon England; Medieval England to c1450. Good visual page. Includes timelines, plenty of pictures. Related to GCSE history

Crime and punishment

  Teaching resources from the UK's National Archives Learning Curve. Covers crime, prevention, and punishment in four eras: before 1450, 1450-1750, 20th Century. Based on real documents. Good teaching notes

Crimes and criminals of the past

  Links to short encyclopaedic articles, e.g. instruments of torture, invention of the guillotine, etc.


  Stories of the law, famous trials, trials without justice, etc.

Justice and law

  Very brief introduction to early forms & classical civilisations - good for illustrating key terms

Eyewitness to history; history through the eyes of those who lived it

  Searchable data base of British history, well presented encyclopaedic-style articles.

Criminal justice history resources

  Extensive collection of links

History of Punishment

History of punishment


1. Babylonian and Egyptian times

Print Resources

Dunan, Marcel (ed.) Larousse encyclopedia of ancient and medieval history . 930 LAR

  Hawkes, Jacquetta. Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization. 930.1 HAW


You be the judge on Hammurabi's code

  Designed for grades 4-8 - some interesting ideas

Code of Hammurabi [portions only]

The Avalon Project : Babylonian Law--The Code of Hammurabi


The Code of Hammurabi

Ancient Law

The Ancient World Web: Law_and_Philosophy

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Ancient Legal Texts

Web links for Western Legal Tradition


2. Ancient Greek and Roman times

Print Resources

  Andrewes, Antony. Greek society . 938 AND

  Boardman, John. Greece and the hellenistic world . 938 GRE

  Boardman, John. The Roman world . 938 ROM

Green, Peter. A concise history of Ancient Greece to the close of the Classical era . 938 GRE

  Hennessy, Dianne. Studies in ancient Greece. 938.02 STU

  Markel, Rita J. Your travel guide to ancient Rome. 937.02MAR

  Rodgers, Nigel. The rise and fall of ancient Rome . 937.02 ROD


The ascent of Rome

  Visually uninteresting, but good information

Living in the city of Rome

Some interesting cases revealed in ancient writings & artefacts

Origin of Lady of Justice

  Possible explanation of the justice "logo"

The suicide of Socrates

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook

The Ancient World


3. Middle Ages - 1200-1450

Print resources

Comte, Suzanne. Everyday life in the Middle Ages . 940.1 COM

  Dunan, Marcel (ed.) Larousse encyclopedia of ancient and medieval history. 930 LAR

  McKitterick, Rosamond (ed.). The Times medieval world . 909.07 TIM

  Mundy, John H. & Peter Riesenberg. The medieval town . 940.1 MUN

  Southern, R.W. The making of the middle ages . 940.1 SOU

  Thorndike, Lynn. The History of Medieval Europe . 940.1 THO


Medieval history - Barbarian codes

  Includes links to Anglo-Saxon Law, Capitulary of Charlemagne, Lex Frisionum, Germanic law, and Salic law

  Tyburn Tree website: public execution in early modern England

  The Brehon Laws

Early British law

  Rosemary Horton links page

Citizenship (1066-2003) Medieval law

  Links to resources

  Legal Research Links

  Medieval Sourcebook: Medieval Legal History


4. Elizabethan 1450-1750

  Print Resources

  Day, Nancy. Your travel guide to renaissance Europe . 940.21 DAY

  Emerson, Kathy Lynn. The writer's guide to everyday life in Renaissance England from 1485-1649 . 942.05 EME

  Salgado, Gamini. The Elizabethan underworld . 364.9421 SAL


Life in London

  General overview of life in Victorian times - not specifically from point of view of crime & punishment.

  The poor in Elizabethan England

  The poor in Elizabethan England. Those who had fallen on hard times saw a great increase in crime. Punishment was very severe

Crime and punishment in Elizabethan England

  Good encyclopaedic style article

Recent Elizabethan laws

  Everyday life in Elizabethan England

  Includes links to Bloody painful; crime and punishment in Elizabethan England; Crime and punishment; Torture and punishment

  Origins and growth of parliament

Use of torture

  Student site with some interesting links


5. Industrial revolution - 1750-1900

Print Resources

  Tobias, J.J. Crime and industrial society in the 19th century . 364.942 TOB


Quotations from the first part of The Insitutes of The Laws of England , by Sir Edward Cloke

Lauues and libertyes of Massachusetts (1648)

  Penal laws (Ireland)

The penal laws in Ireland

  England: a narrative history

  The Age of Empire, the growth of the Commons

  Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1834

  Searchable database **great

Modern History Sourcebook: Beccaria: Crimes and Punishments

  Crime and punishment

  Includes images and extracts from documents

  Quaker views - Elizabeth Fry

  About the life and work of a woman who became famous for her efforts to reform the prison system in Britain in the early nineteenth century. Boring site

  Elizabeth Fry

  Includes images

  Origins and growth of parliament

Making sense of English law enforcement in the 18th century

  Very dry essay for students



Bibliography: Witchcraft and Drama

You should be aware that most of the books recommended for this course are in the Bedford Library (History section), at the shelf mark 301.542 (plus the first three letters of the author's name, usually). You should also note that the Library shelves History MA theses (eg, Magda Sterling, 'The Children of Witches'). Some of these may be of interest to you, but you will of course be aware of the different academic status of the author. Cite them in the normal form if you do consult such theses.

Priority reading=*

Ankarloo, Bengt, and Gustav Henningsen (eds.), Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries   (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990). This book is chiefly important for its inclusion of the essay by Ginzburg (below).

  Barry, Jonathan, Marianne Hester, and Gareth Roberts (eds.), Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief   (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Briggs, Robin, Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft (New York: Viking, 1996). Note that the Library also has offprints of his chapter 7: 'Men against Women'

Clark, Stuart, Thinking with Demons: the Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997). An immense study at 680+ pages. Does the inescapable 'Women and witchcraft' topic at pp.106-133. The Library also has offprints of this important chapter.


Clark, Stuart, (ed.), Languages of Witchcraft (Macmillan, 2001).

Jorden, Edward, Mary Glover Case, and Michael MacDonald (eds.), Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan London   (London: Tavistock/Routledge, 1991).

  Gibson, Marion, Early Modern Witches: Witchcraft Cases in Contemporary Writing (Routledge, 2000)

Gibson, Marion, Reading Witchcraft: Stories of Early English Witches (Routledge, 1999)

Ginzburg, Carlo, 'Deciphering the Sabbath' in Ankarloo Bengt and Gustav Henningsen (eds.). Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries (as above, pp.121-37).

Ginzburg, Carlo, Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches Sabbath (translation of his Storia Notturna , 1989) by Raymond Rosenthal, 1991. Speculative; immense historical perspective on those who thought they battled against 'the armies of the night', a thrilling book in itself, though irrelevant to these plays and what they depict.

* Greenblatt, Stephen, Shakespeare Bewitched in Jeffrey N. Cox and Larry J. Reynolds (eds), New Historical Literary Study: Essays on Reproducing Texts, Representing History (Princeton University Press, 1993), pp.108-35 , or in Susan Zimmerman (ed.), Shakespeare's Tragedies: Contemporary Critical Essays (London: Macmillan, 1998). [824D Sha]

*Harris, Anthony, Night's Black Agents: Witchcraft and Magic in 17th century English Drama (Manchester, 1979).

Lamer, Christina, Enemies of God: the Witch-hunt in Scotland (1981)

  Lamer, Christina, Witchcraft and Religion (1984)

Levack, Brian P., The Witchcraft Sourcebook (Routledge, 2003-4). On order for library, publication date was listed as Dec 2003.

Macfarlane, Alan, Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: a regional and comparative study (London: Routledge, 1970). A closely sociological study, largely about witches in Essex. Analyses closely the progression from suspicion to ill reputation to bringing of the final charge of witchcraft: it was not usually a single extraordinary occurrence that prompted accusation.

Maxwell-Stuart, P. G., Witchcraft in Europe and the New World, 1400-1800 (Palgrave, 2001). This brief account could be a rival to Scarre's monograph as a short introduction to the historical phenomenon of witchcraft, and possibly should be * marked as essential (but I haven't seen it yet)

Normand, Lawrence, Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland (Exeter, University of Exeter Press, 2000)

Normand, Lawrence, 'Witches, King James, and The Masque of Queens in Representing Women in Renaissance England ed. Claude Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth (University of Missouri Press, 1997).

Oldridge, Darren, The Witchcraft Reader (Routledge, 2003). Collection of important articles, on order for library.

*301.542.Pur: Purkiss, Diane, The Witch in History: early modern and 20th century representations (London: Routledge, 1990). Acerbic, plenty to say about the drama, debunks 'the myth of the burning times' with surprising vigour.

Roper, Lyndal, Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, Sexuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe (New York and London: Routledge, 1994).

Roberts, Gareth, 'The Descendants of Circe: Witches and Renaissance Fictions' in Jonathan Barry, Marianne Hester and Gareth Roberts (eds.), Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp.183-206.

  Rosen, Barbara (ed), Witchcraft , (1969). Earlier version of Marion Gibson's collection of pamphlets.

*301.542.Sca: Scarre, Geoffrey, Witchcraft and Magic in 16th and 17th century Europe (Macmillan education, 1987). Recommended: succinct study giving the overall picture.

On Reginald Scot, Elizabethan rsity of Pennsylvania Press, 1996). Divided into background on topics like witchcraft in elite mentalities and popular culture, a thematic middle section including 'Women and witchcraft', and an analysis of the decline of belief in witchcraft.

West, Robert H, 'The Impatient Magic of Dr. Faustus', English Literary Renaissance, 4 (1974), pp. 218-240. Veteran author of The Invisible World: A Study of Pneumatology in Elizabethan Drama (1939) returns to the fray with a very useful corrective to accounts of the play that he sees as inadequately informed in demonology.

Willis, Deborah, Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal Power in Early Modern England (Cornell University Press, 1995)

EN3012 Witchcraft and Drama: Websites relating to Witchcraft

Searching the internet on 'Witchcraft' leads to scores of sites by practitioners of 'Wicca', eager to sell their wares and potions. Other sites often look like (and are) the hobbies of amateur historians. All too often interesting looking links do not work.

The 'luminarium' site is one that literature students should know: has a section on witchcraft.

  Many famous and infamous texts have been posted on the web. Kramer and Sprenger's 'Hammer of the Witches' has gone up at - useful if you ever want to look at one of the most pernicious books ever to go into print (and avoid modern editions put out by peculiar editors like Montague Summers).

One hugely capacious site is at The texts posted here are cross-linked by everybody. There are also vast bibliographies, as this now seems to be the home of 'The Witchcraft Bibliography Project' - a multi-part bibliography, which can be downloaded in sections. Primary and secondary texts are listed together in each alphabetised section; it is all rather discouragingly vast, and only teaches you the titles (in the end). offers a list of the witchcraft cases of the Medieval period in Britain - ending at 1570, just when it starts to get interesting. But does show the typical Medieval cases of politically conspiratorial dabbling in witchcraft (and, alternately, 'witchcraft' used as a political slur.)

At scholars are putting together a large database, 'The Survey of Scottish Witchcraft'.

  The East Anglian witch-hunt of 1645-6 and Matthew Hopkins its chief instigator are profiled at

There are many other links at .

  On witchcraft in films, see

One of the rational heroes of the period, Weyer, gets an on-line article devoted to him at

Note that we now have access to texts of all the witchcraft pamphlets on the EEBO site, to which you can link from the library resources (English) page.